Thursday, 28 November 2013

Censorship and the Truth

Notions of censorship and truth
The indexical qualities of photography in rendering truth
Photographic manipulation and the documentation of truth
Censorship in advertising
Censorship in art and photography

Ansel Adams

You can change the effect of a photograph by the techniques used in the dark room , they can convey a completely different meaning.

Ansel Adams, Moonrise Hernandes New Mexico, 1941 - 2

Ansel Adams, Moon over Half Dome, 1960

Ansel Adams, Aspens

Photography has been manipulated since its beginnings to portray a certain half truth, from people like the government.

‘Five years before coming to power in the 1917 October revolution, the Soviets established 
the newspaper Pravda.  For more than seven Decades,until the fall of Communism, Pravda
which Ironically means “truth”, served the Soviet Communist party by censoring and 
filtering the news presented to Russian and Eastern Europeans’
Aronson, E. and Pratkanis, A., 1992, Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of
Persuasion, New York, Henry Holt & Co., pages 269 - 270

Kate Winslet on the cover of GQ with elongated legs created on photoshop
manipulation to sell

Robert Capa, Death of a Loyalist Soldier, 1936
The start of photo manipulation and changing the truth

‘At that time [World War II], I fervently believed just about everything I was exposed to in 
school and in the media.  For example, I knew that all Germans were evil and that all 
Japanese were sneaky and treacherous, while all white Americans were clean-cut, honest,
fair-minded, and trusting’
Elliot Aronson in Pratkanis and Aronson, (1992), Age of Propaganda, p. xii

Jean Baudillard 
the reflection of a basic reality 
masks perverts a basic reality
masks the abscence of a basic reality
bears no relation to reality whatever it its own simulacrum

Peter Turnley, The Unseen Gulf War, December 2002, at

They where not allowed to show certain images, it was censored, the truth was masked.

The "Mile of Death". During the night of the 25th of February and the day of the 26th of
February, 1991, Allied aircraft strafed and bombed a stretch of the Jahra Highway. A large 
convoy of Iraqis were trying to make a haste retreat back to Baghdad, as the Allied Forces 
retook Kuwait City. Many Iraqis were killed on this highway. Estimates vary on the precise 
number of Iraqis killed during the Gulf War. Very few images of Iraqi dead have been 
previously published 

Things where shown that where not shown in the popular media which makes it out like war 
is okay, it desensitises the details.

‘Most of the reporting that reached American audience and the west in general emanated
from the Pentagon, hence severely lacking balance, as proven by the total blackout on the 
magnitude of the devastation and death on the Iraqi side. A quick statement of the number 
of dead (centered around 100,000 thousands soldiers and 15,000 civilians) sufficed for main-
stream media audience. It is no wonder that this made-for-TV war started at 6:30pm EST on 
January 16, 1991, coinciding with National News. Alas, much of American audience today 
cannot distinguish between computer war games and real war, between news and 

The practice of policy of censoring films, letters or publications




… as the picture does not in fact depict fellatio, but something else, what the dispute comes
down to is whether everyone, a substantial number of people, a few obsessed individuals, 
or one particular person, understand it this way. Without an opinion poll, the dispute is
unresolvable, but it is really quite improbable that such an interpretation will be individual’

Cook, G. (1992), The Discourse of Advertising, London, Routledge, page 51

Oliverio Toscani , United Colours of Benetton, 1992

themes of questioning racism, the view on aids e.c.t

Benetton (UK) Ltd: The ASA deemed this 1991 poster to be a poor reflection on the advertising industry and ordered the advertisers not to repeat the approach.

Sophie Dahl, Opium advert, 2000
The orientation of the image deemed whether it was acceptable or not.

Amy Adler - The Folly of Defining 'Serious' Art
"an irreconcilable between legal rules and artistic practice"
who decides this ?

The Miller Test
asks three questions to determine whether work should be labelled as obscene

whether the 'average' person applying contemporary community standards would find that the work taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest
whether the work depicts or describes in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct
whether the work, taken as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value

Obscenity Law
to protect art whilst prohibiting rubbish
the dividing line between speech and non speech 
the dividing line between prison and freedom

Sally Mann, 1984-92
photographs her own family 
is it damaging to the children
images are quite controversial 

Tierney Gearon 
controversial images of children

Nan Goldin , 1998

How much should we believe in the media ? 
Should we be protected from it ?

Who should be protected ? 

Should art sit out censorship law ?

Thursday, 21 November 2013

Globalisation, Sustainability and the Media

Globalisation, Sustainability and the Media 

ever expanding global media

Globalisation, definitions :

The process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones, it can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together, This process is a combination of economies, technological , sociocultral and political forces.

The elimination of state- enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result

cultural globalisation- the domination of one particular culture and their values i.e. the Western world

"McDonaldization" - coined by American sociologist George Ritzer 
to describe the wide ranging sociocultral processes by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world. 
Fast food- fragmented, fast, a reflection of society  

The invention of the radio, rapidity of communication echoes the senses, we can experience the effects of our actions on a global scale

Marshall McLuhan 1964

Global Village Thesis 
as the globe shrinks, people get closer together, aware of each others problems, all work together 

we can see things live as they happen on the internet, on the television, e.g. 9/11

if anything we are more separated 
centripetal forces- bringing the world together in uniform global society 
centrifugal forces- tearing the world apart in tribal wars

cultures are now fighting/ struggling to remain
through the spread of capitalism

the problems of globalisation 
challenges to the idea of the nation-state, no reason for a nationality
transnational forces and organisations 
who controls them ? 
when a company is based in more than one company, or continent they can't be controlled as the laws etc are different, they can act outside of the control of government, therefore they are extremely powerful
who are we ?
nation, group, economy

and so one culture is being pushed around the globe
Western 'culture' industry 
homogenised (the same)

Cultural Imperialism


media conglomerates operate as oligopolies
a myth of 'free market' 

oligopolies- giant clusters of businesses all in one huge company

5/6 oligopolies, control the worlds media
all of which are American

Time Warner
Current assets

HBO Independent Productions
HBO Multiplexes
HBO on Demand
Cinemax Multiplexes
Cinemax on Demand
HBO Video
HBO Domestic and International Program Distribution
HBO Films
HBO Miniseries
HBO Sports
HBO Entertainment
HBO Documentary Films
Picturehouse (co-owned by New Line Cinema)
HBO InternationalHBO Asia
HBO Hungary
HBO India
HBO Poland
HBO Romania
HBO Latin America GroupHBO Latin America
HBO Brazil
Warner Channel
E! Latin America
Cinemax Latin America
Time Inc.

print publishing unit
management contract for American Express Publishing Corporation
All You
Coastal Living
Cooking Light
Entertainment Weekly
Golf magazine
In Style
My Home Ideas
My Recipes
PeoplePeople en Español
People StyleWatch
Real Simple
Southern Living
Sports IllustratedSports Illustrated for Kids
This Old House (magazine)
Time (magazine)Time Asia
Time Atlantic
Time Canada
Time Europe
Time Latin America
Time South Pacific
Time for Kids
Media Networks, Inc. - target market advertisingMaghound Enterprises Inc. - online-based magazine membership service
Synapse Group, Inc. - customer acquisition and management services
Targeted Media Inc. - customer relationship marketing programs
Time Customer Service - customer service, information systems, marketing services, and subscription fulfillment operation
Time Inc. Content Solutions - relationship marketing/custom publishing platforms
Time Inc. Licensing & Syndication - licensing of Time Inc.'s magazines and books to publishers outside the U.S. Domestically, it handles the licensing of content aggregators.
Time Inc. Interactive - digital businesses and associated technology teams
Time Home Entertainment Inc. - multi-platform content
Time Inc. Studios - dedicated in-house digital studio
Time Warner Retail Sales & Marketing - wholesale and retail marketing services to its publishing clients
QSP - school and youth group fundraising using Time, Inc. magazines subscription
IPC Media

UK publisher
25 Beautiful Homes
Amateur Gardening
Amateur Photographer
Angler's Mail
Beautiful Kitchens
Chat - It's Fate
Country Homes & Interiors
Cycling Fitness
Cycling Weekly
European Boatbuilder
Country Life
Cycle Sport
Cycling Active
Feelgood Games
The Field
Golf Monthly
Good To Know
Good To Know Recipes
Homes & Gardens
Horse & Hound
Ideal Home
In Style
International Boat Industry (IBI)
Look Magazine UK - its latest high street fashion and celebrity weekly
Marie Claire
Motor Boat & Yachting
Motor Boats Monthly
MBR-Mountain Bike Rider
NowNow Style Series
Nuts magazine
Pick Me Up
Practical Boat Owner
Rugby World
Shooting Gazette
Shooting Times
Sporting Gun
Style at Home
SuperYacht Business
SuperYacht World
Teen Now
Trusted Reviews
TV & Satellite Week
TV Easy
TV Times
VW Camper & Bus
What Digital Camera
What's On TV
WomanWoman Special Series
Woman & Homewoman&home Feel Good Food
woman&home Feel Good You
Woman's OwnWoman's Own Lifestyle Series
Woman's WeeklyWoman's Weekly Fiction Series
Woman's Weekly Home Series
Woman's Weekly Living Series
World Soccer
Yachting Monthly
Yachting - the third largest commercial music Web site in the U.K.
Grupo Editorial Expansión

(GEE), Mexican unit
  • Balance - a women's fitness, health and nutrition magazine
  • Chilango
  • CNNExpansió
  • CNN México
  • Cronosº
  • Dinero Inteligente
  • ELLE
  • Endless Vacation
  • Expansión - business magazine
  • IDC Asesor Juridico y Fiscal
  • IDC Online
  • InStyle
  • Life and Style, a monthly men's lifestyle magazine
  • Loop
  • Manufactura
  • Obras - architecture, construction and engineering title
  • Quién - bi-weekly celebrity/personality magazine
  • Quié
  • Quo
  • Revolution
  • Travel & Leisure, Mexico
  • custom publishing
  • Vuelo - magazine for Mexicana Airlines
  • Audi Magazine

  • Turner Broadcasting System
Turner Broadcasting InternationalMillennium Media Group
Turner Entertainment NetworkstruTV
Court TV Original Productions
TNT Originals
TCM Productions
TBS Productions
  • Turner Sports
  • NBC / Turner
  • NASCAR Races
  • Turner Sports & Entertainment Digital Network
  • Bleacher Report
  • March Madness Live
  • NBA Digital (joint venture with the NBA)
  • NBA TV
  • NBA Mobile
  • NBA Game Time App
  • Turner Entertainment Digital Network
  • The Smoking Gun
  • Universal Wrestling Corporation (Formerly World Championship Wrestling - November 1988-March 2001, key properties sold to WWE)
TBS, Inc. Animation, Young Adults & Kids Media (AYAKM) divisionCartoon Network
Adult Swim
Cartoon Network Studios
Williams Street
Adult Swim Video
Cartoon Network Video
CNN News GroupCNN U.S.
CNN en Español
CNN Latino
KBEH (co-owned by Viacom)
CNN International
CNN Radio
CNN Originals
Headline News Productions
CNN Digital
CNN Mobile
CNN Newsource
CNN ImageSource
CNN Wire
Turner Private NetworksAirport Network
AccentHealth Waiting Room Television Network
Turner Inflight Services
Amtrak Acela Network
Dealer Entertainment Network - with TCG Enterprises, Inc,
The Checking Network
InternationalTCM & Cartoon Network / Asia Pacific
TNT Latin America
MuchMusic Latin America
Joint VenturesCartoon Network Japan (Via Japan Entertainment Network, a joint venture with Itochu)
CNN Chile
CNN TÜRK (Japanese)
Zee Turner Ltd (India)
Websites/Broadband ServicesCrime Library
Play On! Powered by ACC Select
Super Deluxe
TNT Overtime
Toonami Jetstream
PGA and
CNN Pipeline
Warner Bros. Entertainment

Warner Bros. Consumer Products
Warner Bros. Theatre Ventures
Warner Bros. Pictures International
Warner Bros. International Cinemas
DC EntertainmentDC ComicsMad Magazine
Warner Bros. Pictures Group

New Line Cinema
New Line Home Entertainment
New Line Television
Turner Entertainment
Warner Bros. PicturesMusic
Domestic Distribution
Castle Rock Entertainment
Warner Independent Pictures
Warner Bros. Studios
Warner Bros. Television Group

Warner Bros. Television
Warner Horizon Television
Warner Bros. Television Distribution
Witt/Thomas Productions
Warner Bros. International Television
Telepictures Productions
The CW Television Network (50% with CBS Corporation)The CW Daytime
CW Now
Warner Bros. Animation
Hanna Barbera
Looney Tunes
Kids' WB!
The WB
Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Group

Warner Home Video
Warner Premiere
Warner Bros. Family Entertainment
Warner Bros. Interactive EntertainmentMonolith Productions
NetherRealm Studios
Rocksteady Studios
Snowblind Studios
Surreal Software
TT Games
Turbine, Inc.
WB Games
Other units

Global Media GroupTime Warner Medialab
Time Warner Investments - venture capital unitAdaptly
Bluefin Labs
BroadLogic (Acquired)
Dynamic Signal
Double Fusion
Everyday Health
Gaia Online
Maker Studios
Nuvo TV
SkyStream Networks (Acquired by Tandberg TV)
Tremor Video
Trion Worlds
Visible World

1. North America
2. Western Europe, Japan and Australia
3. Developing economies and regional producers (india, China, Brazil, Eastern Europe)
4. The rest of the world

target the countries with more money 
all american companies will have an american culture bias

a new form of imperialism 
local cultures destroyed in this process and new forms of cultural dependancy shaped, mirroring old school colonialism 

Schiler- dominance of US driven commercial media forces US model

creeping into under developed countries presenting them with ideals that are unobtainable.

In India the biggest and highest selling product is skin whitening cream. 
Shows the western culture pushing its ideas onto other countries

Chomsky and Herman 1998 
'Manufacturing Consent' 

everyone is constantly being fed, and constant message of how you should look act be etc, life should be like this, through television, films, the news, the internet

propaganda model


Ownership -
Rupert Murdoch 

News of the World
The Sun
The Sunday Times
The Times
NY Post
Fox TV

immense political power
a measurable social effect
a story in any of the papers are bias in someway 

the things that are reported are things that are 'allowed'
the funders wouldn't allow it they are there as businesses
the government don't allow it
advertisers would withdraw their money as they wouldn't want to be associated

organisations to further control the media 
put things in the media that are aiding their own agenda
the GCC global climate coalition - actually help fuel companies such as Exxon, Texaco and Ford. 
they rubbish 'the scare stories'
media propaganda 'they call it pollution, we call it life' GCC on carbon dioxide emissions 

Al Gore 2006 'An Inconvenient Truth' 
dir. Davis Guggenheim

retreat of glaciers 
temperatures on the rise

Flat Earthers rubbish claims of global warming
Jim Inhofe
Nigel Lawson 

never want to put any sanctions on this as that will inflict on profit

to save the planet according to the film an inconvenient truth 
release less CO2
plant more vegetation
try to be CO2 neutral 
buy a hybrid vehicle

the solution is yet more capitalist 
buy new cars, buy new home installation, buy new lightbulbs etc

'sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet thier own needs 
Brutland Commission 1987 'Our Common Future'

Limitation of Technology
Business focuses on the present
under the state of capitalism this is almost impossible

BIOX biofuel plant, Canada
Alternative 'clean' fuel 
more expensive to produce

BIOX Largest production plant 2004
situated in the poorest area on Ontario, Hamilton 
Noise pollution smashed peoples windows 
and the plant contaminated surrounding waters 

solving the problems of capitalism by capitalism ?! 

Green Washing
A 'green' version
or remarket to make it look more eco

e.g. McDonalds Europe changed is red to green

Ford Tauras SHO Ecoboost- nothing ecological, infact almost worse than a normal car

a myth that you can buy eco

victor papanek