" Type is Speech made Visible "
A traditionally oral technique , town criers would walk around the town once a week and shout out all the local news.
Writing was only for the upper class.
The need for typography came when people learnt to read. This is a key thing.
As well as industrialisation of type ( Gutenberg Press ) and the need for mass production.
We can represent type through
- Sans-serif/ Serifs
Its an illustration of character
Font- The physical means to create a typeface e.g. woodcut
Typeface- A collection of characters, numbers, symbols e.c.t which have the same distinct design.
4 Key Categorisations of Font
Block (headlines, big heavy stroke)
Gothic (Sans- serif)
Roman (mainly serif)
Script (brush strokes/ handwritten, not good for body copy)
- Regular/ Italic
- Light/ Italic
- Bold/ Italic
- Ultrabold Condensed
Helvetica vs Arial
look at the e, s and r
the full stop in Helvetica is square and Arial it is circular.
Legibility/ Readability is maximised by font and layout
Counter helps us to read the letterform, and is key to what we are seeing
A defining factor in legibility/ readability is it recognisable
Serifs tend to be easier for people with dyslexia to read as there are more visual clues, definitions.
Legibility- Is the degree to which glyphs (individual characters) in text are understandable or recognisable based on appearance.
Readability- Is the ease with which text can be read and understood. Influenced by line length, primary and secondary leading, justification, typestyle, kerning, tracking and point size.
Secondary Leading wanted to space out more, added more leading.
Tracking increasing leading, adding more led, Extending.
Kerning decreasing the space between glyphs, it becomes less legible Condensing.
Never Kern a font.
Most Legible experiments...
Hattenschweiler 72 point
Edwardian Script 72 point
Century Schoolbook 36 point
Bauhaus 93 48 point
Abadi MTCondensed Light Regular 48 point