essentialism- innate characteristic, genetic makeup , defines you as a person
anti essentialist- shaped by society around you
Online world poses a new way to invent your own identity, away from the outside world e.g. second life
people actually spend money on the sites, but capitalism/ consumerism is still present
internet has changed identities
What makes you, you ?
- Life Experiences
- Where you live/ from
- Personality traits
- Parents/ Socialisation/ Money
- Environment/ Era
- Marriage (Marital Status)
- Physical (Dialectic- social)
- Social (Dialectic- physical)
How do we express our identity ?
- The way you dress
- Hobbies/ Interests
- Ethics/ Morals
- Social Interaction
- Social Circles
Subjectivity- all previously discussed
limited, given to us by our position in society. arrived at via ways we attempt to express ourselves, and it can be our own creation
we are what society thinks we are but also who we think we are
|Circuit of Culture- Stuart Hall|
Culture is the framework within which our identified are formed, expressed and regulated.
five subcategories which all equally affect our identities
(Things we missed, in this diagram)
regulation- laws, orders. Societal limits
What your job is
what your expected to buy and have
expectations- social stereotypes
Identity is all of these things , its not just one.
theory of the process of identity from birth and growing up
comes up with the idea of otherness
The 'hommelette' (babies)
The 'Mirror Stage' (infancy)
When you are born you don't have any comprehension that you are distinct or separate from your mother, no conception of yourself as a separate human being. Confused mixed of different parts
Mirror showing the infant itself externally, showing them they are a being, they are something in the world. Gain a sense of who we are by reactions of people in the world reacting to us. Based on the views of others.
Subjectivity is based on an illusion of wholeness & independence (receiving views from others)
= own subjectivity is fragile
All the rest of our actions, is basically part of the same process achieved at the mirror stage.
Constructing the 'Other'
Problems: relies on the assumption of opposition and radical otherness
We measure ourselves against what we are not, which involves other people and simplifying them. a limited reading of what other people our to reassure ourselves. Securing our sense of selves for others. As does society.
Accent - e.g. pronunciation may show you are from a certain class/education and not perhaps from the working class - slang.
( in ads ) e.g. Lynx othering of gay community, of women, of dominance
shores up unstable identifies through the illusion of unity
shared fashions, belief systems, values
- Subterranean Values ( Matza, 1961)
This brings about :
racism, sexism and all forms of prejudism