What do we mean by politics, society, culture and history ?
In the studio we had to go into pairs and we had to go through each column , politics, society, culture and history separately. We would be told the word and we had two minutes to write down 20 words ( 10 each ) the first words that came into our heads. I found this quite hard especially for society and culture as I am not sure exactly what they mean.
Then in the next task we had to separate this random list of words into positive, negative or both, for each category. In ours we found that a lot of the words where both.
Then in the final task we had to separately write 5 positive and 5 negative statements for each category as a strating point to inform us of our own views.
We also established that writting a list instead of a spider diagram can also be more helpful as it gives you an order of your thought process and a list can give you more lists.
Further Research and Opinions
1. (used with a sing. verb) a. The art or science of government or governing, especially the governing of a political entity, such as a nation, and the administration and control of its internal and external affairs.b. Political science.2. (used with a sing. or pl. verb)a. The activities or affairs engaged in by a government, politician, or political party: "All politics is local" (Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.) "Politics have appealed to me since I was at Oxford because they are exciting morning, noon, and night" (Jeffrey Archer).b. The methods or tactics involved in managing a state or government: The politics of the former regime were rejected by the new government leadership. If the politics of the conservative government now borders on the repressive, what can be expected when the economy falters?3. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Political life: studied law with a view to going into politics; felt that politics was a worthwhile career.4. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Intrigue or maneuvering within a political unit or group in order to gain control or power: Partisan politics is often an obstruction to good government. Office politics are often debilitating and counterproductive.5. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Political attitudes and positions: His politics on that issue is his own business. Your politics are clearly more liberal than mine.6. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) The often internally conflicting interrelationships among people in a society.
n.1. (used with a sing. verb)a. The art or science of government or governing, especially the governing of a political entity, such as a nation, and the administration and control of its internal and external affairs.b. Political science.2. (used with a sing. or pl. verb)a. The activities or affairs engaged in by a government, politician, or political party: "All politics is local" (Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.) "Politics have appealed to me since I was at Oxford because they are exciting morning, noon, and night" (Jeffrey Archer).b. The methods or tactics involved in managing a state or government: The politics of the former regime were rejected by the new government leadership. If the politics of the conservative government now borders on the repressive, what can be expected when the economy falters?3. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Political life: studied law with a view to going into politics; felt that politics was a worthwhile career.4. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Intrigue or maneuvering within a political unit or group in order to gain control or power: Partisan politics is often an obstruction to good government. Office politics are often debilitating and counterproductive.5. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Political attitudes and positions: His politics on that issue is his own business. Your politics are clearly more liberal than mine.6. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) The often internally conflicting interrelationships among people in a society.
n. pl. so·ci·e·ties1.a. The totality of social relationships among humans.b. A group of humans broadly distinguished from other groups by mutual interests, participation in characteristic relationships, shared institutions, and a common culture.c. The institutions and culture of a distinct self-perpetuating group.2. An organization or association of persons engaged in a common profession, activity, or interest: a folklore society; a society of bird watchers.3.a. The rich, privileged, and fashionable social class.b. The socially dominant members of a community.4. Companionship; company: enjoys the society of friends and family members.5. Biology A colony or community of organisms, usually of the same species: an insect society.
1.a. The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought.b. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population: Edwardian culture; Japanese culture; the culture of poverty.c. These patterns, traits, and products considered with respect to a particular category, such as a field, subject, or mode of expression: religious culture in the Middle Ages; musical culture; oral culture.d. The predominating attitudes and behavior that characterize the functioning of a group or organization.2. Intellectual and artistic activity and the works produced by it.3.a. Development of the intellect through training or education.b. Enlightenment resulting from such training or education.4. A high degree of taste and refinement formed by aesthetic and intellectual training.5. Special training and development: voice culture for singers and actors.6. The cultivation of soil; tillage.7. The breeding of animals or growing of plants, especially to produce improved stock.8. Biologya. The growing of microorganisms, tissue cells, or other living matter in a specially prepared nutrient medium.b. Such a growth or colony, as of bacteria.
n. pl. his·to·ries
a. A usually chronological record of events, as of the life or development of a people or institution, often including an explanation of or commentary on those events: a history of the Vikings.b. A formal written account of related natural phenomena: a history of volcanoes.c. A record of a patient's medical background.
d. An established record or pattern of behavior: an inmate with a history of substance abuse.2. The branch of knowledge that records and analyzes past events: "History has a long-range perspective" (Elizabeth Gurley Flynn).
3.a. The past events relating to a particular thing: The history of their rivalry is full of intrigue.b. The aggregate of past events or human affairs: basic tools used throughout history.c. An interesting past: a house with history.d. Something that belongs to the past: Their troubles are history now.e. Slang One that is no longer worth consideration: Why should we worry about him? He's history!
4. A drama based on historical events: the histories of Shakespeare.
n. pl. man·i·fes·toes or man·i·fes·tosA public declaration of principles, policies, or intentions, especially of a political nature.intr.v. man·i·fes·toed, man·i·fes·to·ing, man·i·fes·toesTo issue such a declaration.
(Government, Politics & Diplomacy) a public declaration of intent, policy, aims, etc., as issued by a political party, government, or movement
What are my views....
Authoritarianism is a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority as well as the administration of said authority. In politics, an authoritarian government is one in which political authority is concentrated in a small group of politicians. It is usually opposed to individualism and libertarianism.
Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a political system where the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever necessary.
Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows eligible citizens to participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination.
- Right- Wing
Types of Views
Conservatism is the belief that traditional institutions work best and that society should avoid radical change. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others oppose modernism and seek a return to the way things were.
Liberalism is the belief in the importance of liberty and equality.Most liberals support such fundamental ideas as constitutions, liberal democracy, free and fair elections, human rights, free trade, secularism, and the market economy.
Socialism refers to the various theories of economic organization which advocate either public or direct worker ownership and administration of the means of production and allocation of resources. Socialists generally share the view that capitalism unfairly concentrates power and wealth among a small segment of society that controls capital and derives its wealth through a system of exploitation. This in turn creates an unequal society, that fails to provide equal opportunities for everyone to maximise their potential, and does not utilise technology and resources to their maximum potential nor in the interests of the public.
In 1950, Leonard W. Ferguson carried out an analysis of political values using ten scales measuring attitudes toward:
- Birth control
- Capital punishment
- Treatment of criminals
absolutism. System where the rulers have unlimited control.
anarchism. Society without government, laws, police or other authority. System of self-control.
aristocracy. The privilege of social class whose members possess disproportionately large percentage of society's wealth, prestige and political influence.
autocracy. Supreme political power is in the hands of one person whose decision are unregulated..
capitalism. Right-wing political system where the principle means of production and distribution are in private hands.
communism. Extreme left-wing ideology based on the revolutionary socialist teachings of Marx. Collective ownership and a planned economy. Each should work to their capability and receive according to their needs.
conservatism. Governmental system where the existing institution are maintained, emphasizing free-enterprise and minimal governmental intervention.
democracy. Government by the people usually through elected representatives.
dictatorship. Government by a single person with absolute control over the resources of the state.
egalitaranism. Belief where all citizens have equal rights and privileges.
fascism. Extreme right-wing ideology where the existing social order is protected by the forcible suppression of the working class.
imperialism. The extension of power and rule beyond established geographical boundaries.
liberalism. Representative government, free-speech, abolition of class privilege and state protection of the individual.
Marxism. Developed by Marx and Engles, it proposes that all is subject to change and resistance to change necessitates the overthrow of the system through class struggle.
Maoism. Interpretation of Marxist communism emphasizing the development of agriculture.
Monarchy. A form of rule in which the head of state is a King or Queen.
nationalism. The unification of the state and release from foreign rule.
oligarchy. A system of government in which virtually all power is held a small number of wealthy people who shape policy to benefit themselves.
populism. Collective noun for the ideologies which demand the redistribution of political power and economic leadership to the 'common people'.
socialism. Left-wing political system where the principle means of production, distribution and exchange are in common ownership.
theocracy. Rule by the church.
totalitarianism. Government control of all activities.
Trotskyism. Form of Marxism incorporating the concept of permanent revolution.
liberty. The freedom of speech and the right to dissent.
equality. A classless society with the redistribution of wealth through a welfare state.
fraternity. The communal brotherhood, working and living as one.
authority. The preservation of order through an evolved authority.
hierarchy. The continuation of the existing social order.
property. The right to private ownership.
After looking at the very small amount of research above into a topic that has a vast and extensive subject matter I have come to some conclusion on where I stand POLITICALLY.
I like how in our country we are a democracy. I am against dictatorships, as that means one single person has complete say over an entire country, I think that this is wrong and the people of the country should have a choice and a fair vote. Election rigging is also wrong, and I do not entirely agree with the voting system in this country, as only one of three political parties are elected every time. I think that everyone should be treat fairly and in this sense you could say I am a Liberal. However I also believe that criminals do not receive a harsh enough punishment any more and many reoffend to go back to a semi-comfortable lifestyle in prison. I am not a communist, I do not believe that wealth should be redistributed, however on the other hand I don’t believe in aristocracy either, this is just as wrong in my mind. I believe that if you have earnt your money you should be able to keep, but you shouldn’t be allowed more privileges just because of this i.e. university- which should be judged down to intelligence. I do believe that some people are paid far too much and some of this money should be redistributed into a fair and successful welfare system and NHS etc. I think that politics is a vast subject and it has many viewpoints and opinions however I would say I am more central and if anything slightly more leaned to the left wing, democratic/ liberal view of politics. I would say that politics can be interesting however I do not think I am completely knowledgeable on the subject and I think my more liberal equal rights, fair rights side could influence my own work.
A social issue (also called a social ill or a social problem) is an issue that relates to society's perception of people's personal lives. Different societies have different perceptions and what may be normal behaviour in one society may be a significant social issue in another society. Social issues are distinguished from economic issues. Some issues have both social and economic aspects, such asimmigration. There are also issues that don't fall into either category, such as wars.
Personal Troubles versus Public Issues
Personal troubles are problems that individuals deal with themselves and within a small range of their peers and relationships. For example, if a person is fired from his/her job, this is a personal trouble. On the other hand, public issues are problems on a larger scale, which reflect threatened values cherished by widespread society. For example, the unemployment rate of 7.8 percent in the U.S. as of October 2012 is a public issue.
The line between a personal trouble and a public issue is subjective, however, when a large enough sector of society is affected by a problem, it becomes a public issue. Although one person fired is not a public issue, 13 million people fired would by most accounts be a public issue. Subjective interpretation is at hand here for sure. Is an unemployment rate of 1 percent large enough to be a public issue? Much of this depends of the investment of those affected.
Social Class and Poverty
Unemployment rates vary by region, gender, educational attainment and ethnic group.
In most countries, including the developed countries many people are poor and depend on welfare. In Germany in 2007 one in 6 children depended on welfare. That is up from only one in 75 in 1965.
Race and Ethnicity
People are never equal to the same things
Health and Medicine-
Marijuana is still illegal to this day in many countries when it has endless medical benefits including the capability to cure cancer
Drugs and Crime-
Alcohol and Drugs-
Crime and the Justice System-
So called problem neighbourhoods exist in many countries. Those neighbourhoods tend to have a high drop-out rate from secondary school and children growing up in a neighbourhood like this have a low probability of going to college compared to a person growing up in another neighbourhood. Abuse of alcohol and drugs is common. Often those neighbourhoods were founded out of best intentions.
War Crimes and Terrorism-
More Detailed problems:
- Food and Drug Safety
- Tax Reform
- Church-State Separation
- Global Warming
- Birth Control
- Drug Abuse
- Capital Punishment
- Media, Sex and Violence
- Animal Rights
- Women's Rights
- Anti-Muslim Discrimination and Violence
- World population
- Same-sex marriage
- Organ & body donation
- Human Rights
- Environmental Pollution
- Children's Rights
- Corporate Downsizing
- Defense Spending and Preparedness
- Euthanasia & assisted suicide
- Eating Disorders
- Racial profiling
- Recycling and Conservation
- Civil Rights
- Genetic Engineering
- Consumer Debt and Bankruptcy
- Judicial Reform
- Academic Freedom
- Gun Control
- Gender issues
- Environmental issues
- Single Parenting
- Child Labor
- Nuclear Proliferation
- Gay Marriages
- Health Care Reform
- Embryonic Stem Cell Research
- Affirmative Action
I will try to summarise what I think socially in the paragraph below.
I now believe that social issues are very interesting, however again I am not sure if they influence my work on a daily basis. I believe that social class inequality is wrong, and that we should not have poverty especially in a country like ours. However more needs to be done to encourage the poorer people in society to stay in education or to get a job. I also think that unemployment in this country is bad especially the unfair employment of the young people, i.e. not being employed, being paid less for the same job. I also think ethnicity and race inequality is also wrong but I think that society is moving forwards in this idea. As is the same with gender.
Education should be available to all those who want it after the legal age and people should be helped in the right direction.
I think with drugs a lot of people do them and I do not think that it is tackled enough, however I do think that marijuana is heavily focused on even though it isn’t in fact the worst drug by far, as we use it in medicine and to help with cancer.
I think that we don’t do enough to help the environment i.e. the use of water, fossil fuels and packaging; we aren’t using enough sustainable materials at all.
I think that it is hugely subjective, people should have the right to have an opinion, but not if it is for a bad purpose, i.e. inequality and harm to others.
In the 20th century, "culture" emerged as a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be attributed to genetic inheritance. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings:
(1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and
(2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively
1. in a society, the beliefs, way of life, art, and customs that are shared and accepted by people in a particular society:
We speak Danish at home so that the boys don't lose touch with their language and culture.
In our culture, it is rude to ask someone how much they earn.
I love working abroad and meeting people from different cultures.
Western/American/Japanese etc culture
A brief history of Western culture.
Business is one of the major forces in modern culture.
2. in a group, the attitudes and beliefs about something that are shared by a particular group of people or in a particular organization:
Every government department has its own particular culture.
Changing the corporate culture is a long and difficult process.
In the field of drug development, the culture of secrecy is deep and strong.
modern American youth culture
the drug culture that is destroying so many young lives today
the German political culture
3. art/music/literature, activities that are related to art, music, literature etc:
If it's culture you're looking for, the city has plenty of museums and art galleries.
the Italian Ministry of Culture
popular culture (=the music, books, films etc that are liked by a lot of people)
4. society, a society that existed at a particular time in history:
This technique was then adapted and refined by the more sophisticated cultures of the ancient world.
5. medicine/science, technical bacteria or cells grown for medical or scientific use, or the process of growing them:
It takes two to three weeks to grow the culture.
6. crops, technical the practice of growing crops:
clearing forest for rice culture
It is hard to summarise what I think about culture as there are so many different cultures that host so many different beliefs and ways of life. I believe that we should accept other peoples culture and way of life even if we don’t understand it. People should be allowed to show their own culture in other countries but they should try not to offend the people around them. We should try to learn as much about other peoples cultures as possible and I find it interesting how one thing can mean another in a different country or even city. I myself do not have any religious beliefs and so this does not effect me in any of my judgments of culture, as religion is a big contributor to culture.
I think that when it comes to history it is a good idea to have knowledge on events that changed the world and its political, social and cultural knowledge/ experiences. We can learn from the past, whether that is in a good or bad way. As a designer it is important to know the history of design e.g. the invention of Gutenberg Press and the invention of the mass printing process. We should try to have a basic knowledge of all the creative fields as one has influenced another. It also helps to know about history of our own and other countries to help us inform how we feel about certain things. As well as this we can look back at work as inspiration and finishing techniques.