Sunday, 20 January 2013

Colour Theory Lecture 3 & 4

Carrying on from Colour Theory 1 & 2 

Colour & Contrast

Our perception of colour is based on our physiological ability to see frequencies of colour. 
By combining the frequencies we make the whole spectrum of colour.

The colour wheel gives us a representation of the relationships between the colours. Cyclical.

Our eyes fool our brain into seeing  a full spectrum, tones, shades and tints.

Itten's 7 Contrasts

• Contrast of TONE• Contrast of HUE• Contrast of SATURATION• Contrast of EXSTENSION• Contrast of TEMPERATURE• COMPLEMENTARY contrast• SIMULTANEOUS contrast

Colour is based on an interpretation of contrast, one thing being different to another. Variations come in the degrees of difference.

All contrasts are happening at the same time, greater or lesser extent.

Contrast of Tone
Formed by the juxtaposition of light and dark values. This could be monochromatic

(Single Colour)

Removed all colour values, monochrome black palette, this shows the lightest/ darkest tones of the colours.

Changed to highest contrast.
(Low Contrast, Mid Contrast)

Equal legible as they are equidistant. Black and White to Mid tone Grey background.


Less Legible, as they are less tonally contrasting ( closer together )

Contrast of Hue
Formed by the juxtaposing of different hues. The greater the distance between hues on a colour wheel, the greater the contrast.

I.e. red most contrasting to green

red, yellow, blue equidistant on a hue palette

 Yellow stands out the most as it is tonally more contrasting with the black background as it is the lighetest 
Blue stands out the most as it is tonally the darkest on the tonally lightest white background.

Contrast of Saturation
Formed by the juxtaposition of light and dark values and their relative saturations

Looks the most blue

Shape now looks less 

Contrast of Extension
Formed by assigning proportional field sizes in relation to the visual weight of a colour. Also known as the contrast of proportion. 

Contrast of Temperature
Formed by juxtaposing hues that can be considered ‘warm’ or ‘cool’. Also known as the contrast of warm and cool.

Orange is the warmest
Blue is the coolest, they are contrasting colours and are equidistant so they are the opposite of each other.

The colours are still flat but as they are trying to outweigh each other they look as if they have a gradient or are 3 dimensional.

Complimentary Contrast
Formed by juxtaposing complementary colours from a colour wheel or perceptual opposites.

Simultaneous Contrast
Formed when boundaries between colours perceptually vibrate. 

Below the word type is still legible but the space between them is quite blurry

It becomes even blurry in this piece below

Following the contrast of extension the word below is more legible, showing that the word do not need to be bigger to be more legible, especially with colour

The counters become blurred and you can barely see the word

The counters are even less understandable here and the word now looks like PETY

Below there are two colours

There are now three colours on the page and the bar in the middle is still the same colour but it looks like it has changed.

Here are the type is grey

When the green section is added the grey (neutral) is almost turning red, as the green wants its complimentary colour to be there.

Again the bar is the same colour but it appears to change when it gets into the green area.

The same applies to the section that is now purple, its complimentary colour is now slightly visible in the grey type.

Now with both sections the same things happen however the only colours are grey, green and purple.

If you stare at the black dot, it begins to appear red

Then when we add red and stare at the dot we will still see this in our peripheral vision

Now a strange cross will appear even though it is not there as the cross has imprinted onto our eyes.

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